Clove tree: Uses, medicine, Synonyms, Effects, and Side Effects

Clove tree Uses, medicine, Synonyms, Effects, and Side Effects

The tree originally comes from Southeast Asia, particularly the Moluccas and southern Philippines. Today, it is grown in many tropical countries, such as Zanzibar and Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and South America.

The dried flower buds (Caryophylli floss) or the essential oil extracted from them (Caryphylli aetheroleum) are used as drugs.

Characteristics of the Clove Tree

The clove tree is an evergreen tropical tree that grows to 20 m tall and bears simply glossy, entire leaves. The white flowers grow in triple three-pronged umbels.


Peculiarities of cloves

The dried flower buds are brown and about 12-17 mm long. They consist of the so-called hypanthium (lower calyx) up to 4 mm thick and the four lighter petals. The hypanthium merges into four rough calyx lobes at the top, where the petals sit like a hood. Under the hood are many small stamens. If you nick cloves with your fingernail, the essential oil will escape.

The smell of cloves is very aromatic. Cloves taste spicy and slightly burning.

Clove Tree – Application

Cloves have a local anaesthetic effect and are used in dentistry for local pain relief. Cloves are also used to treat inflammation of the mucous membranes in the mouth and throat and, traditionally, to relieve flatulence.

Aside from medicinal uses, cloves are also used as a condiment.

Cloves in folk medicine

Cloves have been used in folk medicine to relieve toothache, flatulence and indigestion since the 13th century. Today, they play a role, often in combination with other medicinal plants, as stomach remedies (stomach), remedies for flatulence (carminative) and strengthening agents (tonic).


Homeopathic use of cloves

The homoeopathic application corresponds in the broadest sense to the official application. Again, cloves are mainly used to relieve toothache.

Ingredients of cloves

The flower buds of carnations contain large amounts of essential oil (14-26%). Eugenol is the main component of the oil (75-85%), along with smaller amounts of eugenol acetate (up to 15%) and β-caryophyllene (up to 7%). Other ingredients in cloves are around 0.4% flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, triterpenes and small amounts of fatty oil.


Cloves: indication

Cloves are used medicinally in the following cases:

  • pain
  • a toothache
  • Inflammation of the oral mucosa
  • Inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa
  • indigestion
  • gas

Clove Tree – Dosage

From the drug powder, the whole or the crushed drug, the essential oil is extracted, and other forms of preparation for local use are made. Phytopharmaceuticals exist in the form of various combination preparations that contain essential clove oil.

Furthermore, cloves are often a component of spice mixtures used to make mulled wine.

Cloves as a remedy: what dose?

In dentistry, undiluted essential oil or preparations containing up to 30% essential oil are often used.

Unless otherwise prescribed, mouthwash should not contain more than 1-5% essential oil.


Preparation and storage of cloves

There is no need to prepare tea because cloves are not usually taken as tea.

The drug should be stored dry and protected from light, but not in plastic containers.

Cloves: contraindications

Preparations and supplements containing cloves should not be taken if you have a known allergy to cloves or other myrtle plants. Clove oil can cause allergies.

Clove Tree – Synonyms

German plant name: Gewürznelkenbaum

Latin plant name: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERRILL and LM PERRY/

Latin synonyms of the plant: Eugenia caryophyllus (C. SPRENG) BULL et HARR., Caryophyllus aromaticus L., Eugenia aromatica Baill., Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg

German drug name: cloves

German synonyms of the drug: Nails, spice nails, chalk cloves

Latin drug name: Carnation flower

English name: Clove, Caryophyllum, Clove tree, Mother cloves

Plant family Latin: Myrtaceae

Plant family German: Myrtengewächse


Clove Tree – Effect

The properties of cloves, clove oil and isolated components of the flower buds have been studied in great detail, and the local anaesthetic, antispasmodic and antiseptic effects have been demonstrated. According to various studies, cloves have antifungal (against fungi ) and antiviral effects, especially against herpes viruses, and have an inhibitory effect on oral microorganisms.

Anti-inflammatory effect of cloves

The anti-inflammatory effect of cloves has also been known for some time. The anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties can be explained by inhibiting the eugenol synthesis of so-called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are a group of tissue hormones which, among other things, mediate pain and act as mediators of the inflammatory response.

Cloves: side effects

In concentrated form, clove oil can have an irritating effect on tissues. There are currently no known interactions of cloves with other agents.



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