Hemorrhoids: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment write meta description

Hemorrhoids: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

It is estimated that every second person gets to know the annoying symptoms of hemorrhoids in the course of their life. Nevertheless, most of those affected hide their hemorrhoid symptoms out of a sense of shame. In this article you will learn all about the symptoms, treatment and causes of hemorrhoids.

What are hemorrhoids?

The human intestine consists of different parts: It starts with the stomach as the small intestine, becomes the large intestine and at the end the rectum and leads to the outside as the anus. At the transition from the rectum to the anus there is a circular vascular cushion, the hemorrhoidal erectile tissue or the hemorrhoidal meshwork. Together with the sphincter muscle, this forms the sealing ring of the anus. The sphincter prevents solid stool from escaping, and the cavernous body prevents liquids and gases from escaping. Bright red, arterial blood flows through the haemorrhoids, which flows out of the sphincter muscle when it is relaxed, i.e. during bowel movements, and flows back again after the bowel movement has ended in order to close the anus.

Internal and external hemorrhoids

If this system is disturbed or if the blood flow is impeded, the vascular cushion can enlarge. This condition is known in technical jargon as hemorrhoidal disease or  internal hemorrhoids  .

Anal thrombosis, commonly known as  external hemorrhoids  , on the other hand, is not actually a hemorrhoid, but a harmless but painful  lump  on the edge of the anus caused by a ruptured vein. When they heal, small flaps of skin often develop from them, which are referred to as skin tags.

How does hemorrhoids occur?

A particularly common cause of hemorrhoids is a rather low-fiber diet, which, together with a lack of exercise, leads to  constipation  . As a result, when you have a bowel movement, you press hard and long, which overstretches the blood vessels in the rectum and enlarges the vascular cushion. With constant overstretching, bulges eventually form in the rectum and anus.

In addition, there is often a hereditary connective tissue weakness. A congenital lack of elasticity favors the development of bulges. Chronic  diarrhea  ( laxatives ) can also  lead to haemorrhoids, since the fine motor skills of the intestinal obstruction system are not sufficiently trained due to the thin stool.

Excessive  pressure  on the rectum or in the abdomen impedes blood flow in the haemorrhoidal meshwork and causes it to be overstretched. This can be promoted by  obesity  or even a strong, long-lasting  cough  .

Typical symptoms of hemorrhoids

The symptoms of hemorrhoids often appear at the beginning in the form of  itching , wetness and burning in the anus. In a more advanced stage, hemorrhoids can also bleed, which is indicated by light-colored blood in the stool. Severe pain is also possible.

Depending on the severity and symptoms, hemorrhoids are divided into four stages, and the treatment is based on these:

  • Grad I: Die Hämorrhoiden sind äußerlich noch nicht sichtbar und nicht tastbar und äußern sich nur in einer leichten Schwellung, die mitunter von Juckreiz, Nässen und Brennen im Analbereich begleitet wird. Die Gefäßpolster sind bereits vergrößert.
  • Grad II: Die Hämorrhoiden werden bei der Stuhlentleerung herausgepresst, ziehen sich aber von selbst wieder zurück. Auffällig ist mitunter der Abgang von hellrotem Blut mit dem Stuhl. Starker Juckreiz, Brennen und Schleimabsonderungen sind weitere Merkmale in diesem Stadium.
  • Grad III und IV: Die Hämorrhoiden können sich nicht mehr selbstständig zurückziehen, sondern allenfalls zurückgedrückt werden (Grad III). Zu den starken Schmerzen und dem Brennen kommen Entzündungen der Analschleimhaut hinzu. Zudem kann sich ein Fremdkörpergefühl einstellen.

Zwar lassen sich die Beschwerden durch Hämorrhoiden-Salben oder Zäpfchen, die es in der Apotheke rezeptfrei zu kaufen gibt, lindern. Dennoch ist bei Hämorrhoiden ein Besuch beim Arzt unumgänglich – besonders Blutungen können auch Hinweis für einen Darmtumor sein. Dieser Darmtumor muss in jedem Fall fachmännisch ausgeschlossen werden.

Hämorrhoiden in der Schwangerschaft

Possible causes of hemorrhoids include  pregnancy . Many women have problems with hemorrhoids during pregnancy because the pelvic floor is loosened, which can promote the development of hemorrhoids. In addition, the child presses on the rectum. Hemorrhoids can persist even after the baby is born.

hemorrhoids in old age

Hemorrhoids are more common in old age because the elasticity of the tissue decreases and the vessels fill more with blood. The normal reflux is reduced. Vascular knots are favored in this way. Sedentary work or sitting for a long time in general also promotes hemorrhoids because blood can accumulate below the hips when sitting.

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