Vector vaccine responsible for side effects?

After dangerous side effects first appeared as a result of the AstraZeneca vaccination, sinus vein thrombosis and embolism have now also followed the corona vaccine from Johnson & Johnson. German experts suspect a connection between the type of corona vaccine and the dangerous formation of blood clots.

Both AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson are so-called vector vaccines. The Russian corona vaccine Sputnik V also belongs to this vaccine group.

Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca: This is a vector vaccine

A vector vaccine transports the blueprint for specific proteins in the virus. In the case of the  corona virus  , the blueprint for the so-called spike protein is transported. This enables  Sars-CoV-2  to dock with human cells. The body recognizes the blueprint of the protein and rebuilds it. The  immune system  then perceives the proteins as foreign bodies. It forms antibodies and T cells as different components of the immune system against the corona virus.

AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson transport the spike protein in the envelope of a harmless virus (vector). Both vaccines use adenoviruses (cold viruses from chimpanzees) as a vector.

Experts suspect: the vector is the cause of the thrombosis

After AstraZeneca in Germany should only be vaccinated in people over the age of 60 after thrombosis cases in younger people, the vector vaccine from Johnson & Johnson is also being checked by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

Experts suspect a connection between the actually harmless adenoviruses and the   immune response responsible for the thrombosis .

It is believed that during the course of the immune response, patients produce certain antibodies that are responsible for activating platelets (thrombocytes), which in turn leads to blood clots. This reaction could be triggered by the vector viruses, but possibly also by the spike protein.

Whether there is actually a class effect, i.e. similar undesirable side effects with both vaccines, and whether the vector vaccines are particularly affected, still has to be checked.

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