What actually happens to the bun during digestion?

Even if it sounds strange: Digestion begins in the mouth. There, the enzymes contained in the saliva do some preliminary work. Chew  wholemeal bread for a while  – it suddenly tastes sweet because enzymes break down the starch into sugar. The stomach later breaks down proteins with its acid and emulsifies fats. Through the “gatekeeper” the food pulp gets from the stomach into the small intestine. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum (“duodenum”), jejunum, and ileum. It winds its way through the abdominal cavity over a total of about five meters. The actual absorption of food and the utilization of the food components takes place in the small intestine. The individual parts – molecules such as glucose,  and calcium – now enter the blood via the intestinal mucosa and can thus reach the entire organism.

Large surface of the intestine

In order to be able to cope with this onslaught, nature has come up with something clever. The surface of the small intestine is immensely enlarged because the mucous membrane   lies in so-called villi and folds . Wrinkles are distinct elevations with a “connective tissue base”, villi are small finger-shaped protrusions of the mucous membrane.

The ducts from the liver and pancreas open into the duodenum, and their digestive juices unfold their effect in the small intestine. The bile acids in the liver are important for fat digestion, the various enzymes in the pancreas further break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

The large intestine and rectum are the final sections of the alimentary canal. In the large intestine, water and electrolytes are extracted from the indigestible remains of the chyme and returned to the body. Bacteria such as lactobacilli and Escherichia coli also live in the large intestine. The bacteria are important for normal intestinal activity, continue to break down indigestible residues and also produce vitamins that are essential for us.


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